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Category Archives: Intellectual Property

Who Becomes an Inventor in America? The Importance of Exposure to Innovation

Who Becomes an Inventor in America? The Importance of Exposure to Innovation, Alex Bell, Harvard University, Raj Chetty, Stanford University and NBER, Xavier Jaravel, London School of Economics, Neviana Petkova, Office of Tax Analysis, US Treasury, John Van Reenen, MIT and Centre for Economic Performance. December 2017.

“We characterize the factors that determine who becomes an inventor in America by using de-identified data on 1.2 million inventors from patent records linked to tax records. We establish three sets of results. First, children from high-income (top 1%) families are ten times as likely to become inventors as those from below-median income families. There are similarly large gaps by race and gender. Differences in innate ability, as measured by test scores in early childhood, explain relatively little of these gaps. Second, exposure to innovation during child has significant causal effects on children’s propensities to become inventors. Growing up in a neighborhood or family with a high innovation rate in a specific technology class leads to a higher probability of patenting in exactly the same technology class. These exposure effects are gender-specific: girls are more likely to become inventors in a particular technology class if they grow up in an area with more female inventors in that technology class. Third, the financial returns to inventions are extremely skewed and highly correlated with their scientific impact, as measured by citations. Consistent with the importance of exposure effects and contrary to standard models of career selection, women and disadvantaged youth are as under-represented among high-impact inventors as they are among inventors as a whole. We develop a simple model of inventors’ careers that matches these empirical results. The model implies that increasing exposure to innovation in childhood may have larger impacts on innovation than increasing the financial incentives to innovate, for instance by reducing tax rates. In particular, there are many “lost Einsteins” – individuals who would have had highly impactful inventions had they been exposed to innovation.”

Liability for Providing Hyperlinks to Copyright-Infringing Content: International and Comparative Law Perspectives

Ginsburg, Jane C. and Budiardjo, Luke, Liability for Providing Hyperlinks to Copyright-Infringing Content: International and Comparative Law Perspectives (November 3, 2017). Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 14-563. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3068786 “Hyperlinking, at once an essential means of navigating the Internet, but also a frequent means to enable infringement of copyright, challenges courts to… Continue Reading

WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights Thirty-Fifth Session

“Nobody among members of the World Intellectual Property Organization disputes the importance of the public services provided by libraries and archives. However, positions are different when it comes to providing exceptions to copyright to those entities so they can continue to dispense their services, in particular in the digital age. An updated study presented in… Continue Reading

Returning Authors’ Rights: The Authors Alliance/Creative Commons Termination of Transfer Tool

“Welcome to the Authors Alliance/Creative Commons Termination of Transfer tool. This page explains what termination of transfer is all about and what this tool does. Termination of transfers: Get rights back! Creators of all kinds routinely transfer rights to their works (by signing publication contracts that assign copyright to their publishers, for example). While many… Continue Reading

Intellectual Property for the Twenty-First-Century Economy

Intellectual Property for the Twenty-First-Century Economy, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Dean Baker, Arjun Jayadev. October 17, 2017. “Developing countries are increasingly pushing back against the intellectual property regime foisted on them by the advanced economies over the last 30 years. They are right to do so, because what matters is not only the production of knowledge,… Continue Reading

New on LLRX – AI And The Rule Of Law

Via LLRX – AI And The Rule Of Law – Our exposure to and reliance upon an increasingly ubiquitous range of technology is intertwined with issues related to intellectual property law. With smartphone cameras used to capture and share what their respective creators otherwise claim as intellectual property, to the devices, services and applications that… Continue Reading

Online translation applications may pose security risk

Quartz: “…On Sept. 3, the Norwegian news agency NRK reported that sensitive Statoil information—contracts, workforce reduction plans, dismissal letters, and more—were available online because employees had used the free translation service Translate.com, which stored the data in the cloud. The news traveled fast in Scandinavian countries. In response, the Oslo Stock Exchange even blocked employee… Continue Reading

New on LLRX – The ‘internet of things’ is sending us back to the Middle Ages

New on LLRX.com – The ‘internet of things’ is sending us back to the Middle Ages The Internet of Things (IoT) has permeated all facets of our lives – professional, family, social – more quickly and expansively than many are willing to acknowledge. The repercussions of IoT are multifaceted – and directly impact issues that… Continue Reading

Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age: 2017 – Chapters 1 and 2

Menell, Peter S. and Lemley, Mark A. and Merges, Robert P., Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age: 2017 – Chapters 1 and 2 (July 18, 2017). Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age 2017: Vol. II Copyrights, Trademarks and State IP Protections; ISBN-13: 978-1945555077; UC Berkeley Public Law Research Paper; Stanford Public Law Working… Continue Reading

New Yorker – Who Owns the Internet?

Who Owns the Internet? What Big Tech’s monopoly powers mean for our culture. “…Today, just about everybody uses it for everything. Even as the Web has grown, however, it has narrowed. Google now controls nearly ninety per cent of search advertising, Facebook almost eighty per cent of mobile social traffic, and Amazon about seventy-five per… Continue Reading

Internet Archive – 78rpm Records Digitized by George Blood, L.P.

Internet Archive post: “Through the Great 78 Project the Internet Archive has begun to digitize 78rpm discs for preservation, research, and discovery with the help of George Blood, L.P.. 78s were mostly made from shellac, i.e., beetle resin, and were the brittle predecessors to the LP (microgroove) era.  @great78project for uploads as they happen. The… Continue Reading

Implementation of Agreement between US and China on Science and Technology

U.S. Department of State Case No. F-2016-03522 Doc No. C06306089 Date: 05/11/2017 UNCLASSIFIED – Implementation of Agreement between the United States and China on Science and Technology Public Law 107-314. [via FAS] “Federal agencies continued to advance a range of U.S. objectives during the reporting period between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2015. During… Continue Reading