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Depletion and Dysfunction of Dendritic Cells: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Chang T, Yang J, Deng H, Chen D, Yang X, Tang ZH. Depletion and Dysfunction of Dendritic Cells: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Front Immunol. 2022 Feb 21;13:843342. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.843342. PMID: 35265087; PMCID: PMC8898834.

“The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a serious threat to public health and economic systems worldwide. As of January 27, 2022, more than 356.95 million people had been infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 [severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2] and 5.61 million individuals had died (data from WHO Coronavirus Dashboard). “Uncontrolled severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection is closely related to disorders of the innate immune and delayed adaptive immune systems. Dendritic cells (DCs) “bridge” innate immunity and adaptive immunity. DCs have important roles in defending against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we summarize the latest research concerning the role of DCs in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We focus on the complex interplay between DCs and SARS-CoV-2: pyroptosis-induced activation; activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; and activation of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin. We also discuss the decline in DC number, the impaired antigen-presentation capability, and the reduced production of type-I interferon of DCs in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we discuss the potential mechanisms for pathological activation of DCs to understand the pattern of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lastly, we provide a brief overview of novel vaccination and immunotherapy strategies based on DC targeting to overcome SARS-CoV-2 infection.”

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