An Analysis of the Privacy and Security Risks of Android VPN Permission-enabled Apps. MC 2016, November 14-16, 2016, Santa Monica, CA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2987443.2987471.
Related – via NPR – “In the first major review of VPN providers, researchers from across the globe tested nearly 300 free VPN apps on Google Play. What they found was alarming. Nearly 40 percent injected malware or malvertising. And nearly 20 percent of the apps didn’t even encrypt user traffic. This month, the Center for Democracy & Technology filed a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission alleging the VPN Hotspot Shield collects data and intercepts traffic. If true, that would be a direct violation of claims by the company’s policy to “never log or store user data.”